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T cells expressing the V9V2 T cell receptor (TCR) comprise by far the most abundant T cell subset in human blood, where they commonly account for 1 of T cells in wholesome adults (1). In quite a few microbial infections,V9V2 T cells dramatically expand, reaching 50 of all T cells at infected web sites (5), thus indicating their importance in antimicrobial immunity and their possible for diagnostic and therapeutic use. The V9V2 TCR recognizes a number of low molecular weight pyrophosphate intermediates of isoprenoid biosynthesis (phosphoantigens), however the most potent phosphoantigen recognized is (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), an intermediate on the non-mevalonate pathway that is definitely identified inside the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, some Gram-positive species and some parasites, like Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii (1, six). Not too long ago, butyrophilin 3A (BTN3A/CD277) was shown to bind to phosphoantigens inside cells, resulting in activation of V9V2 T cells (7, 8). HMB-PP is usually utilised to induce in vitro expansion and activation of V9V2 T cells (9, ten). Activated V9V2 T cells exhibit a selection of effector functions which includes direct cytotoxicity of infected and tumor cells, the induction of inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes and promotion of your survival, differentiation and activation of monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells (DC), T cells, and B cells (1). Recent research have supplied evidence that V9V2 T cells can bridge innate and adaptive im.